-Modernism in architecture had two competing directions. One—prominently represented by the Bauhaus—aimed to redesign the world in conformance with the demands of industrialization, including its social dimensions, such as workers’ housing. The other—represented by De Stijl and the Russian avant-garde—aimed at a transformation of spirit and the creation a new society taking radical forms of every kind.
-Constructivists, with their technological symbolism and collectivist social programs.
-Fragmentation can be philosophical, too. It can be systematic and not merely chaotic or accidental. This can be seen in some of Malevich’s earlier paintings. Or, even if it is chaotic, it can reflect an existentialist edge, a risky form of play with disintegration as a prelude or even an impetus to a higher re-formation. As long as forms remain whole, unified, coherent, they cannot be transformed. Only when established forms are broken up are they susceptible to change. This formal verity is a virtual metaphor for modern society: the break up caused by political revolutions and new technological capabilities has created a human world not only susceptible to new forms, but demanding of them.